Wheat Breeding Methods
The most common method for selecting winter wheat as a self-pollinating plant is individual selection (single or multiple).
About a third of the zoned varieties of winter wheat in the USSR were bred by this method. Due to the widespread use of intervarietal crosses in free pollination, individual selection is becoming increasingly important in the selection of winter wheat.
Family selection is also effective in winter wheat breeding. Carrying out work by this method, the best plants are selected, then families are sowing. When testing in the nursery, the best families are selected, then their seeds are combined. Varieties bred by family selection as populations should be more adaptable to adverse conditions.
By this method for ex. The Mironovskaya selection and experimental station (now the Mironovka Research Institute of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production) bred the winter wheat variety Mironovskaya 264, at the Iygeva selection station – the variety Luunya, at the Nemerchanskaya experimental station – the variety Zarya. Individual-family selection is widely used in seed production for elite cultivation.
A small number of varieties are bred by mass selection. These include Alabasskaya (Karaganda experimental station), Dolis-Puri 35-4 (Georgian selection experimental station), Kolkhoznitsa (North-West Agricultural Research Institute), Priazovskaya (Tselinsky variety section of Rostov Region), etc.