Animal Breeding Table
CROSSES OF MEAT CHICKENS DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN BREEDING
A.L. Kostikov, N.V. Samburov
Annotation. The authors give a description of the main crosses of broiler chickens bred in the Russian Federation.
Key words: hybrid bird, lines, crosses, safety, feed conversion, autosexual, average daily gain, mini-crosses.
The development of meat poultry farming under the federal target program of the Russian Federation will be carried out by growing broilers with high genetic growth potential and the widespread introduction of promising resource-saving technologies. Active innovative work of scientists and specialists in these areas will allow us to produce competitive high-quality products at the level of world standards and provide the domestic market with high-quality food. Currently, poultry farming 30% meets the needs of the country’s population in animal proteins. In Russia, poultry meat accounts for more than 20% in the meat balance. The successes achieved by poultry farmers in recent years are largely due to the cultivation of highly productive hybrid poultry obtained from crosses of breeding lines of meat breeds [1, 2, 3].
A feature of broiler production is the high growth rate of young animals, the possibility of year-round meat production, low feed costs per kilogram of live weight gain. All modern crosses used to obtain broilers are created on the basis of Cornish (paternal form) and white Plymouth rooks (maternal form). Since 1962, poultry of lines and crosses of leading world companies such as Shaver, Starbro (Canada), Gibro (Netherlands), Lohmann (Germany), Isa (France) were imported into the country , “Cobb” (USA), “Ross” (Scotland), etc. Long-term selection based on the genotypes of imported lines and progenitor forms allowed specialists to create cross-countries adapted to our conditions: “Neva-2”, “Baltika-4”, “ Broiler-6 “[4, 5, 6].
Breeding work with meat crosses of chickens is carried out in the direction of increasing the egg production of laying layers of plymouthroats and average daily gains in live weight of broilers with reduced feed costs per 1 kg of growth. The main supplier of new broiler crosses to the Russian market is the Smena breeding plant. The successful work of VNITIP scientists and specialists of the breeding farm ended with the development of the Smena-2 and Smena-4 and Smena-7 crosses based on the imported Ross-308 and Ross-508 crosses [7, 8].