Interline Hybridization in Plant Breeding Promotes
Hybridization is the main plant breeding method. A hybrid (from the Latin hybrid — crossbreed) is obtained by crossing two plants belonging to different varieties, varieties, species and genera. With the fusion of germ cells – gametes, a zygote is obtained, giving rise to a hybrid organism.
The success of hybridization depends on the selection of parental pairs for crossbreeding. They are selected according to various indicators: according to the ecological criterion, by productivity, etc.
Heterosis. In hybrids of the first generation, an increase in yield and plant power is observed. This phenomenon is called heterosis. To use it in agricultural practice, a technique has been developed for producing field hybrids in vegetables and fruit crops. Hybrids are distinguished intraspecific, interspecific and intergeneric. Intraspecific hybrids include those obtained as a result of the pollination of individuals within the same botanical species (intervarietal, varietal, three-linear and double inter-linear).
Intersortual hybrids are the result of crossing two varieties. In the selection of corn, sortlinear and double interline hybrids are more often used. The line refers to the offspring of one self-pollinated plant. Self-pollinated lines obtained forcibly at the crossroads are called incuct lines. From crossing the cultivar with the line, a sortoleinar hybrid is obtained. Interline hybrids are the result of crossing two lines. The most productive are double interline hybrids obtained by crossing simple interline hybrids. The most common double interline hybrids VIR 42MV, VIR 25TV, VIR 156TV and others. Hybrid seeds are grown annually (heterosis manifests itself in the first generation of hybrids).
To reduce the cost of production of hybrid maize seeds, pollen cytoplasmic male sterility is currently used. Forms giving sterile (sterile) pollen are selected as mother plants. At the same time, there is no need to manually break off panicles on maternal plants at hybridization sites. Plants with the ability to restore pollen fertility (fertility) in the obtained hybrids are selected as paternal forms.
Obtaining interspecific and intergeneric hybrids are classified as distant hybridization. This section of modern biology is important and promising in creating more productive, resistant to diseases and pests plant forms, less whimsical to growing conditions.