Features of Plant Breeding
G.I. Taranuho Selection and seed production of crops.
The founder of the theory of natural and artificial selection is the great English scientist Charles Darwin. He in his brilliant works “The Origin of Species through Natural Selection”, “The Origin of Pets and Cultivated Plants”, “The Origin of Man and Sexual Selection” for the first time substantiated the process of evolution of the organic world due to the interaction of three main factors, which include variability, heredity and selection. In nature, thanks to variability, new forms appear, with the help of heredity, these changes are passed on to the next generation, under the influence of natural selection, only those organisms survive that gain new distribution, in which new characteristics arise that are most suitable for environmental conditions, and less adapted ones die (are eliminated )
There are two main types of natural selection: driving and stabilizing. Driving natural selection leads to the saturation of populations with new hereditary traits and properties that provide higher species vitality in certain environmental conditions. Under the influence of stabilizing selection, adverse mutations are eliminated, while the population becomes more homogeneous.
Natural selection occurs in nature constantly, regardless of man. It exerts its influence on natural speciation and is always present during the selection process. In this regard, in the selection of any culture, it is necessary to take into account and use it rationally to create more plastic forms of cultivated plants that are best suited for growth in specific soil and climatic conditions.