Variety Breeding Achievements
Widespread selection and seed production in our country received only after the establishment of Soviet power.
The decree of the Council of People’s Commissars “On Seed Production”, published in 1921, played a historical role in the development of selection and seed production. Recognizing the importance of family affairs for the agriculture of the young Soviet republic, this decree determined the development prospects and organizational forms of constructing selection and seed production. When breeding institutions created uterine nurseries of varietal seeds. Their reproduction was assigned to special seed farms – state farms. So the foundation was laid for a unified centralized state system of selection and seed production in our country.
As a result of great attention to the organization of work of breeding-experimental institutions in the USSR, a harmonious system of selection, variety testing and seed production was created. More than 400 research institutions carry out breeding work in various cultures. Among them are the world-famous All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Plant Production named after N. I. Vavilov (Leningrad) with a network of stations, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Oilseeds named after V. S. Pustovoit (VNIIMK) in Krasnodar, Krasnodar Research Institute of Agriculture, Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture of the South-East (Saratov), All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Breeding and Genetics (Odessa), Mironovsky Research Institute of Wheat Breeding and Seed named after V.N. Remeslo, Tulunskaya and Krasnokutskaya selection stations, etc.
By the beginning of the 1930s, the selection and experimental institutions of the USSR, using the exceptional wealth of local varieties-populations, developed individual and mass selection methods to produce many first-class varieties: spring wheat – Lutescens 62 and Melanopus 69 – winter wheat – Ukrainka and Gostianum 237 – winter rye – Vyatka and Lisitsyna – spring barley – Wiener, Europium 353/133 and Nutans 187 – oats – Kharkov 596 – millet – Saratov 853 and Podolyansk 24/273. The authors of these varieties were prominent Soviet breeders A.P. Shekhurdin, P.N. Konstantinov, G.K. Meister, V. Ya. Yuryev, P.I. Lisitsyn, N.V. Rudnitsky, I.M. Eremeev, L. I. Kovalevsky, B. M. Arnold and others who were among the first in the world to use intraspecific and distant hybridization to create varieties.