Plant Breeding Goals
The science of methods for creating new and improving existing varieties of cultivated plants with the qualities necessary for practice is called plant breeding. The aim of selection is the breeding of new plant varieties – resistant groups, artificially created by humans and possessing certain hereditary properties. All plants belonging to the same variety have similar, hereditarily fixed physiological, biochemical, morphological and economic characteristics, as well as the same type of response to the influence of environmental factors.
The main areas of plant breeding include:
Increasing the yield of plant varieties.
Improving the quality of products (for example, taste, keeping quality, appearance of vegetables and fruits, increase in the chemical composition of protein grains, starch, amino acids, etc.).
The acquisition by plants of the necessary physiological qualities (drought resistance, cold resistance, precocity, resistance to pests and diseases).
Intensification of development (good response to the introduction of fertilizers, watering).
In recent years, barley varieties have been bred, which give excellent yields when irrigated with sea water in conditions of a shortage of fresh. Also, varieties were created that were productive in conditions of snowless winters with severe frosts, with late frosts, which is especially important for Russia and Belarus.
Plant breeding is carried out taking into account the needs of the market for agricultural products. For example, in order to bake high-quality bread with a soft inside and a crispy crust, strong (glassy) varieties of soft wheat with a high content of elastic gluten and protein are needed. And for the baking of higher grades of cookies, floury varieties of soft wheat are needed, while pasta is made from durum wheat.