Modern Microorganism Breeding
The main link of the biotechnological process, which determines its entire essence, is a biological object capable of carrying out a certain modification of the feedstock and form one or another necessary product. The cells of microorganisms, animals and plants, transgenic animals and plants, as well as multicomponent enzyme systems of cells and individual enzymes can serve as such objects of biotechnology.
The basis of most modern biotechnological industries is still microbial synthesis, i.e., the synthesis of a variety of biologically active substances using microorganisms. Unfortunately, objects of plant and animal origin for a number of reasons have not yet found such widespread use.
Regardless of the nature of the object, the primary step in the development of any biotechnological process is to obtain pure cultures of organisms (if they are microbes), cells or tissues (if they are more complex organisms – plants or animals). Many stages of further manipulations with the latter (i.e., with the cells of plants or animals), in fact, are the principles and methods used in microbiological industries. From the methodological point of view, both microbial cell cultures and tissue cultures of plants and animals practically do not differ from microbial cultures. Therefore, it is advisable to conduct further discussions in relation to microbiological objects.