Modern Selection Methods Table
Viktor GARAI, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, VNIIplemLubov IVSHINA, Head of the Department of Livestock and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Udmurt RepublicEfrosinya MARININA, Chief Livestock Breeder of OAO Vostochny profitability of both individual farms and the industry as a whole. To increase the rate of genetic improvement, it is important to use modern breeding methods based on the achievements of population genetics and integrated computer systems and systems that operate at the level of the breeding herd. In 1996, specialized pig lines for breeding “in yourself ”by the method of intrapopulation selection in the presence of four unrelated branches. Selection and genetic work was carried out in stages. First, we studied the genealogical structure of the lines of boars, sow families and their family relationships in a closed circuit (uterus with uterus, uterus with boar and boars with boars). Based on the results of this analysis, on the basis of the mother stock of five genealogical families of large white breed (Advertising, Beatrice, Palette, Soy and Sorceress) formed two specialized maternal lines – Naughty and Pattern. The Shalun line was made up of 12 boars and 230 sows, and the Pattern line was made up of 12 boars and 240 sows. Using so many animals allows you to create an optimally broad genetic basis, which makes the line viable, suitable for long-term operation in the breeding system. In breeding work, the following rules are required. When forming and improving the lines, one needs to be guided by the modern needs of the industry, that is, the population should be suitable for farms with different technologies and for a long time to remain highly productive.
It is important that animals of the same line possess optimal genetic similarity not only in origin, but also in the development of special economically useful qualities. Breeding must be carried out in isolation for a long series of generations, without forced inbreeding and crosses, so that the line has internal reserves for reproduction. For this, at the very beginning of its creation, reproduction is carried out by at least four branches. The selection of manufacturers of uterus from these branches eliminates forced inbreeding up to the fourth generation. A necessary element of breeding work is a genetically-mathematically sound development of target selection standards for subsequent generations.