Basic Animal Breeding
General biology is the subject of the basic laws of life phenomena. The importance of biology for medicine, agriculture and other sectors of the economy.
The basics of cytology
The main provisions of cellular theory. The cell is a structural and functional unit of the living. The structure and function of the nucleus, cytoplasm and its main organelles. Structural features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The content of chemical elements in the cell. Water and other inorganic substances, their role in the life of the cell. Organic substances: lipids, ATP, biopolymers (carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids), their role in the cell. Enzymes, their role in life processes. DNA self-doubling.
Metabolism and energy conversion are the basis of cell activity. Energy metabolism in the cell and its essence. The value of ATP in energy metabolism.
Plastic exchange. Photosynthesis. Ways to increase the productivity of agricultural plants. Protein biosynthesis. Gene and its role in biosynthesis. DNA code. Matrix synthesis reactions. The relationship of the processes of plastic and energy metabolism.
Viruses, the features of their structure and activity.
Reproduction and individual development of organisms
Cell division, meiosis and fertilization are the basis of reproduction and individual development of organisms. Preparation of cells for division. Doubling of DNA molecules. Chromosomes, their haploid and diploid set, constancy of number and form.
Cell division and its meaning.
Sexual and asexual reproduction of organisms. Germ cells. Meiosis. The development of eggs and sperm. Fertilization.
Embryo development (on the example of animals). Postembryonic development. The harmful effects of alcohol and nicotine on the development of the human body.
the emergence of life on Earth.)
The basics of genetics
The main laws of heredity and variability of organisms and their cytological basis.
Subject, tasks and methods of genetics.
Mono- and dihybrid crosses. The laws of heredity established by G. Mendel. Dominant and recessive symptoms. Allelic genes. Phenotype and genotype. Homozygote and heterozygote. Uniformity of the first generation.