Plant Breeding Source Material
Breeding work begins with the selection of source material, which can be used cultural and wild forms of plants.
In modern breeding, the following main types and methods of obtaining the source material are used.
I. Natural populations. This type of source material includes wild-growing forms, local varieties of cultivated plants, populations and samples represented in the world collection of agricultural plants VIR.
II. Hybrid populations created as a result of crossing varieties and forms within one species (intraspecific) and obtained as a result of crossing different species and genera of plants (interspecific and intergeneric).
III. Self-pollinated lines (incuct lines). In cross-pollinated plants, an important source of source material is self-pollinated lines obtained by repeated forced self-pollination. The best lines are crossed with each other or with varieties, and the resulting seeds are used for one year to grow heterotic hybrids. Hybrids created on the basis of self-pollinated lines, in contrast to conventional hybrid varieties, must be reproduced annually.
IV. Artificial mutations and polyploid forms. This type of source material is obtained by exposing plants to various types of radiation, temperature, chemicals and other mutagenic agents.