Plant Breeding Problems

Plant Breeding Problems

ECOLOGY AND SAFETY IN THE TECHNOSPHERE: MODERN CHALLENGES AND WAYS

MODERN PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL SELECTION IN SELECTION

I.E. LIKHENKO, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Director

Summary. Given the huge variety of natural and climatic resources of the region, successful work is possible only on the basis of forms of local origin, of which a regional genetic resource (Siberian gene pool) has been formed at SibNIIRS, which numbers about 10,000 samples of grain and leguminous crops and about 5,000 vegetables, including a collection of 35 species of perennial onion plants, consisting of more than 300 genotypes. Among the main directions of agricultural crop breeding in Siberia, one can name breeding for the duration of the growing season (both for reduction and increase depending on the crop), for increasing the productivity potential, plasticity and stability of new varieties, creating not only monogenic, but also polygenic forms with non-specific (horizontal) disease resistance. The expediency of using distant hybridization, polyploidy, and molecular methods providing for the controlled transfer of genes into constructed genotypes is noted. Thanks to the work done, in the majority of the subjects of the Siberian Federal District in recent years there has been an increase in the sown area of ​​winter crops, especially wheat, the maximum productivity of crops such as spring soft wheat and spring barley obtained on high agricultural backgrounds has reached 65.80 kg / ha, protein content in grain wheat – 20%, gluten – 40%, almost all varieties and breeding forms of winter rye SibNIIRS annually form grain with a drop number of more than 200 s in a competitive variety test.

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